In my experience this kind of hang is due to a lack of GPU/video support. I'd say you need to boot into an un-accelerated 'safe' video mode and keep using it until you've run a full update (new kernel, new video drivers.)
Press 'e' on the try elementary os option and add 'nomodeset' (without brackets) to the portion that says 'splash quiet".
Install as ...
Can you please try hitting the 'e' key in the grub boot menu (text mode), and adding 'nomodeset=1' to the end of the line that starts with 'linux'. Then hit F10 to continue booting.
You should see something like:
(Googled image, not the exact line), Basically that's where I'm asking you to add the 'nomodeset=1' value at the end.
The "point of failure" is likely the hardware itself, as the MacBook Pro you're using shipped in autumn 2006. Comparing the specifications of a fully loaded, top-of-the-line MacBook Pro for that year to the recommended hardware for Elementary OS we see this:
MacBook Pro (2,2)
Intel Core2Duo T7600 @ 2.33GHz
Recent Intel i3 ...
The recent kernel update from Elementary OS 5.1 resolved this issue. I was able to install eOS much sooner by building my own daily ISO but have since re-installed with the latest ISO and it works with the new HWE stack.
Yes you can... just create an install drive, boot from it and choose where it says "Try elementary OS without installing" in the boot menu
And later, inside if you want to install it just execute where it says something like "Install elementaryOS"
Fragment of grub.conf from elementaryos-5.0-stable.20181016.iso
menuentry "Try elementary OS without ...
Try running in Live USB mode. If that doesn't work try this;
Press e on "Try ElementaryOS without installing"
Go to the bottom of the boot options, and type;
outb 0x728 1
outb 0x710 2
outb 0x740 2
outb 0x750 0
i915.lvds_channel_mode=2 i915.modeset=1 i915.lvds_use_ssc=0
then press F10 and it should boot.