You can reset terminal palette to default with dconf or via the command line:
gsettings reset org.pantheon.terminal.settings palette
To set background transparency you can change the background key at the same path. Its last value is between 1 (no transparency) and 0 (full transparency)
See Where are dircolors defined for pantheon terminal? as well
Just as the post you linked says you can open the file by entering
sudo scratch-text-editor /usr/share/themes/elementary/gtk-3.0/apps.css
in the terminal. Once it's open look for the section that starts with this
* Gala *
The default CSS code looks like this:
While i'm also very concerned about color switchboard plugin being gone (i'm a photographer so i make a substantial use of color profiles) i did some digging and found this:
Seems like Elementary wants to move setting color profiles from "Color" settings to "Display" settings. As a result ...
Ended up fixing the issue. Apparently the switchboard color plugin had been removed. Once I reinstalled that, the color setting appears under the settings window.
You can reinstall the switchboard color plugin by running the following:
sudo apt-get install switchboard-plug-gcc-color
sudo apt-get install switchboard-plug-gcc-color-dbg
You can, but you need to use a different file viewer - Nautilus works great.
sudo apt-get install nautilus
sudo apt-get install folder-color
You should be able to right click folders using Nautilus and select "folder color" to adjust them. Here's a screenshot of mine running Juno 5.0:
If you mean the Terminal's background, then you need to install the Elementary Tweaks and go to Terminal menu —> Background Color and change the background color, you can also change the background transparency.
Also, I don't recommend changing the background color from gray to any other color or setting the transparency too high. In my opinion it doesn't ...
Short answer: edit /usr/share/gtksourceview-3.0/styles/solarized-dark.xml and customize it the way you want. For example, line 29, changing the value of 'base3' from #002B36 to #2B2B2B will get you the desired background color.
Long answer: take a look at Dark theme on Elemntary Code instead of “Solar Dark”
If you have elementary tweaks installed, it's pretty straightforward to swap out icon packs, but that's kind of a global change to all icons and I don't think this is quite what you're looking for. Unfortunately I'm not aware of this functionality built into elementary OS, but maybe someone more knowledgeable about this stuff will come along.
There is a change that's caused by the German translation.
I would recommend testing this again in the English language,
I now understand that the settings still freezed in english, so it's not a translation issue. I would recommend starting the System Settings from the terminal with debug enabled:
$ switchboard --debug
Hopefully that shows useful errors. ...