When using the file dialog in Windows it's possible to specify a URL instead of a local file. Is it at all possible to do this in elementary OS? When trying what's in the image below, it simply does nothing when clicking open. I'm running the latest ISO from the site.
The short answer is "no" - not at the moment. You can access remote files and folders using addresses such as ftp://firstname.lastname@example.org/... or through WebDAV shares but you cannot use it like a web browser.