Audacious can start playing an audio CD by going to Services, Play CD, and it has good CDDB support.
sudo apt-get install audacious
audacious will just start the application, but
audacious cdda:// will start playing the Audio CD in Audacious.
So, that can be run with a short-key or by creating an Audacious desktop file in
usr/share/applications with the above command and then make that executable so that it will be found with the Super-Space launcher.
To easily do that in terminal we need a text editor like Gedit, Leafpad or Mousepad (Scratch is not usable in the same way.) The example here is with Gedit.
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/audacious_cd.desktop
There, paste this:
Name=Play Audio CD with Audacious
Then, save, close and do
sudo chmod +x /usr/share/applications/audacious_cd.desktop
Now, in Applications launcher, when typing 'CD', you should see "Play Audio CD with Audacious".
Also, if prefered, a such desktop file can be dragged&dropped onto the dock too.
The same is possible for Qmmp.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:forkotov02/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install qmmp qmmp-plugin-pack
Then add the following command to a short-key (or to a desktop file as above):
Deadbeef will play a CD with the option File-Add audio CD, which adds the CD tracks to a playlist. -- Or with the command
which then can be used as specified in the other cases above.
Deadbeef had a bug that prevented it from fetching CDDB metadata.
To fix that be sure that "Prefer CD-Text over CDDB" under Preferences-Plugins-Audio CD player-Configure is NOT checked. Details here.