I cannot shutdown my elementary OS in my ASUS G56JR Notebook. I am trying other solutions I have found here in StackExchange but no changes, I am using actual version LTS of elementary OS Freya.
I faced the same problem with my ASUS GL552VW. Fixed with a simple kernel parameter change.
1) Install Grub Customizer
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:danielrichter2007/grub-customizer -y
sudo apt update
sudo apt install grub-customizer
you need to add a parameter on the second last line that starts with
linux /boot/vmlinuz-xxx.... add
ro quiet splash $vt_handoff
Click OK and Save. Now hard reset your laptop. It should be fixed from the next boot.
I'm using these parameters to boot and this fixes all the function keys operations, keyboard backlight, graphics and the shutdown problem.
linux /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-36-generic.efi.signed root=UUID=7e43add9-fbc2-4946-a640-0b269d17c117 i915.modeset=0 nouveau.modeset=1 nvidia.modeset=1 idle=nomwait acpi=force acpi_osi=! acpi_backlight=native ro quiet splash $vt_handoff
Hit the same problem several times while trying to install elementary OS for the first time and fiddling to get window size other than VGA -- Mac OS host with Virtualbox -- and the advice above did work for me:
sudo shutdown -h now
and to reboot
Once I got the installation and updates and window size fix working, the normal shutdown and restart pulldown menus work fine.
I did hang the VM once since then, by trying to change Files view from Icons to List -- had to power cycle again because terminal/mouse/keyboard weren't live.