So, I reinstalled to a new drive. The install completed without errors. Now I can't boot, I only get a blinking cursor. This is on a Dell M4600 laptop.
EDIT: I guess I solved my problem, but maybe there's still something that needs some love in the installer. At first, I installed with the full disk encryption and got the blinking cursor. Then, I installed without any encryption with separate / and /home partitions. That booted just fine. I then reinstalled over the working install with a full disk encryption and it works now. This was on a brand-new disk, so maybe the full disk encryption option somehow doesn't handle that well or something.